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How 2020 changed the way we use technology



When the first coronavirus lockdowns were imposed outside China, billions of people around the world were forced to look online for communication, collaboration, entertainment and sustenance.

But the story of tech’s role in the pandemic did not end there.

Early lockdown hits such as Houseparty soon lost momentum, while some of the year’s biggest breakouts, such as the game Among Us, did not emerge until later in the year.

Around the world and across many categories, a unifying theme was that leading sites and services benefited most — the big just kept getting bigger. The exception is Zoom, the underdog video app that became a verb; even Microsoft, whose Teams app crushed lesser rivals, could not slow Zoom down.

The following charts draw mainly on findings from SimilarWeb, which tracks web browsing data from samples of millions of people, and Apptopia and App Annie, which do the same for mobile apps. We chose to represent either website visits or mobile app usage data, depending on the category, based on what we believe is the most reliable indicator of how the world used the internet in 2020.

The internet

The surge in broadband traffic in March and April was so extreme that some video services, such as YouTube, were forced to downgrade streaming resolution to preserve bandwidth — an unprecedented move.

Even after lockdowns began to ease in some parts of the world, online activity — where internet access was available — remained elevated, and the second uptick in November was almost as large as that of the spring.

Broadband usage in the US surged during lockdowns. Chart showing gigabytes per customer, 7-day rolling average

However, not everyone was able to go online when lockdowns curtailed their real-world activities. Even in some of the largest internet markets, such as India and China, there remain hundreds of millions of people without regular connectivity. Africa’s internet penetration still lags far behind the rest of the world.

In some parts of the world, internet access cannot be taken for granted. 3 charts showing Households with internet access at home in 2019 (%), Active mobile-broadband subscriptions in 2020* (per 100 inhabitants) and Fixed-broadband subscriptions in 2020* (per 100 inhabitants) across 6 regions. The Americas, Europe, CIS, Asia & Pacific, Arab states and Africa

Social media and dating apps

Even though there was little scope for real-world socialising and dating, the pandemic only accelerated the growth of the leading social and communication apps. Facebook’s biggest competition is itself, with usage of its image-sharing platform Instagram closing in on stablemate WhatsApp, according to Apptopia, which tracks mobile user behaviour.

Dating app use surged despite lockdowns, with Tinder by far the most popular. Chart showing millions of sessions per week, worldwide for Tinder, Bumble, Grindr and HingeEven the biggest social networking apps continued to grow in 2020. Chart showing millions of sessions per week, worldwide for Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and TikTok

Twitter’s annual review of its users’ posts reflected the people who dominated 2020’s political and cultural conversation. Outgoing US president Donald Trump and his successor Joe Biden topped the chart — alongside the wave of anti-racism protests around the world that followed the police killing of George Floyd — and, of course, the K-pop band BTS. Twitter’s most-used emoji was “laughing-crying”, for the third year running.

Graphic ordered from left to right. Source: Twitter
Graphic ordered from left to right. Source: Twitter

Streaming entertainment

Netflix’s outsized performance also proves the value of being the default choice in any given internet category. Disney Plus saw a particularly strong finish to the year as families gathered for Thanksgiving, Christmas and other holidays. Trending hits such as Tiger King and The Mandalorian, and perhaps the need for a shared distraction from the horrors of the daily news, pushed more people around the world towards the same shows.

Netflix use jumped when lockdowns took effect, helped by popular series such as Tiger King. Chart showing weekly traffic to the chosen domains (millions of visits, worldwide) of Netflix, Amazon Prime video, Twitch and DisneyPlus

The virtual office

Back at the “office”, remote working tools and video calls were inescapable. (This chart only shows data from the web, so it excludes in-app activity on either desktop or mobile devices.) The internet’s ability to concentrate attention once again took hold, with Zoom benefiting disproportionately even though Microsoft’s Teams and Google’s Meet were available for free in many organisations. Controversies earlier in the year about Zoom’s security and privacy controls seemed to be trumped by convenience.

Zoom zoomed ahead of Microsoft Teams early in the pandemic and has sustained its lead since. Chart showing Weekly traffic to the chosen domains (millions of visits in the US and UK) of Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Google Meet and Slack
Video calls became inescapable, even for those at an EU summit
Video calls became inescapable, even for those at an EU summit © Olivier Matthys/POOL/AFP Getty Images


Amazon’s dominance of online retail and Prime shipping perks made it the go-to option when the high street was forced to shut down. But it was Amazon’s own invented shopping festival, Prime Day, in October that saw the biggest spike of the year so far, with Black Friday seeing further acceleration again. Overall, analyst group eMarketer estimated that US ecommerce grew by 32 per cent in 2020, to 14 per cent of total retail sales.

Amazon became a crucial resource this year and continues to extend its lead over rivals. Chart showing weekly traffic to the chosen domains (millions of visits, worldwide) for Amazon, eBay and Walmart

Food delivery

Food delivery apps were among the hottest tech companies of the year. That was demonstrated by DoorDash’s blockbuster initial public offering, which shot up by more than 80 per cent on its first day of trading, briefly valuing the company at $60bn and raising expectations for Deliveroo’s anticipated stock market debut in 2021. (The group selected in this chart is only a sample of the market, which has significant regional variation in app branding and availability; UberEats, one of the largest, was excluded because food ordering was merged into Uber’s main ride-hailing app, complicating a like-for-like comparison.)

Food delivery apps saw huge growth throughout the year,as lockdowns closed restaurants. Chart showing worldwide monthly active users (rebased, Jan 2020=100) for Deliveroo, DoorDash, Just Eat and GrubhubMost ordered dishes on DoorDash1 Chicken fingers and French fries 2 Fried chicken sandwich3 Mac and cheese4 Chips and guacamole5 Apple pie6 Pad Thai7 Chicken quesadillas8 Iced coffee9 California roll10 Chicken tikka masala
A DoorDash bicycle courier during a delivery in New York
A DoorDash bicycle courier during a delivery in New York © Michael Nagle/Bloomberg

Fitness and wellness apps

Mental health rose up the corporate and political agenda in 2020, as the hidden costs of weeks and months in lockdown took their toll. That drove more smartphone users to swap doomscrolling Twitter for mindfulness and meditation apps such as Calm, which raised new funding at a $2bn valuation in December. But as gyms were forced to close, an even more striking change in mobile habits was seen among workout apps such as Strava and Nike Run Club. While usage may have fallen slightly from the summer’s peaks in Europe and North America, these exercise-tracking apps have managed to hold on to many of their new users throughout the year. That points to a more enduring change than the usual shortlived New Year’s boost.

Fitness apps saw more growth than wellness apps. Chart showing Millions of sessions per week of Calm, Strava, MyFitnessPal, Nike Run Club, Headspace and Peloton.Young women led the charge in the pandemic activity surge. Chart showing % change in median number of Strava activities per athlete (Apr–Sep 2020)

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Large-cap US stocks with high ETF ownership have underperformed




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Visit our ETF Hub for investor news and education, market updates and analysis and easy-to-use tools to help you select the right ETFs.

Large-cap US stocks favoured by exchange traded funds have underperformed the wider market in recent years, raising fears that “crowding” in popular companies is damaging returns.

Analysis of the constituents of the S&P 100 by Vincent Deluard, global macro strategist at StoneX, a New York-based brokerage, found that since 2018 the stocks most owned by ETFs have tended to perform worse that those more lightly held by such funds.

Moreover, this negative correlation “has been getting stronger in the past three years”, Deluard said, “which I find interesting and possibly consistent with the view that a high ETF ownership depresses future returns by pushing up valuations”.

If that thesis is correct, then “the best opportunities to compound wealth should therefore be found outside of popular funds and indices,” he added.

Deluard’s research adds some credence to the arguments of some value investors that the rise of ETFs is just the latest example of “the madness of crowds” and that price-insensitive index funds create “passive bubbles” by piling into the same momentum-driven stocks, only for these bubbles to then burst.

The booming global ETF industry has seen its assets almost double to $9tn since the end of 2018, according to figures from consultancy ETFGI, with the bulk of this money both in the US and in equities.

Simultaneously, there has been a partial shift from broad market capitalisation-weighted ETFs — which pump money into every stock in an index in line with its pre-existing size — to narrowly focused thematic ETFs and those investing on the basis of environmental, social and governance factors.

The assets of thematic ETFs have tripled since the end of 2018 to $382bn, according to ETFGI, while those of ESG ETFs have risen ninefold to $246bn over the same period.

This has fed suggestions that ETFs have evolved from attempting to passively reflect stock markets to actively shaping them, distorting prices of particular companies as an ever larger share of money flows into favoured “ETF darling” stocks.

However, the data from StoneX suggests that the opposite may be happening, with unfavoured stocks seeing stronger gains.

Deluard found that ETFs’ share of ownership ranges from 4.1 per cent to 11.2 per cent for the 100 largest US stocks.

ETF ownership and return

The 10 stocks most lightly owned by ETFs include five that have more than doubled investors’ money over the past three years: Morgan Stanley, T-Mobile US, Deere & Co, Amazon and Tesla, the latter with an outsized 820 per cent total return.

Apple, Alphabet and Facebook are in the same quadrant.

In contrast, the stocks most favoured by ETFs include a disproportionate number of weak performers, such as Gilead Sciences, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Intel and 3M, alongside a smaller number of strong performers such as chip designers Texas Instruments, Qualcomm and Lam Research.

Deluard played down the importance of his findings to some degree, saying the negative correlation between the level of ETF ownership and performance was statistically “weak” and that relative sector performance “has been the main driver” of returns.

Although there has been high profile coverage of some tech ETFs, the ETF industry as a whole tends to be underweight technology stocks, something he attributes to a meaningful block of stock typically being locked up in founders’ stakes and employee ownership, leaving less for outside investors.

Similarly, despite the rise of ESG ETFs, the industry at large is still overweight oil companies such as Chevron and ExxonMobil, which are favoured by value and dividend ETFs.

Comparable analysis Deluard conducted into the 2012-2018 period found a weaker, though still negative, link between ETF ownership and performance.

Nevertheless, even if his findings can be attributed to a statistical quirk, there is at least no evidence that rising ETF ownership is distorting the market by pushing up the prices of ETF darlings at the expense of unloved and overlooked stocks.

Deluard does not, though, rule out the possibility ETFs might be pushing up prices of small or mid-cap stocks that are less able to absorb strong ETF inflows, such as those in popular fields like gold miners or cyber security companies.

“Passive distortions are likely much greater for small caps whose limited float can be overwhelmed by index funds’ relentless buying,” he said.

Peter Sleep, senior portfolio manager at 7 Investment Management, cautioned that Deluard’s findings could vary somewhat if they were based on free-float market capitalisation, omitting founders’ stakes from the calculation.

On this basis, ETFs would own a higher percentage of technology companies’ shares, reducing the tendency for lightly held shares to have performed better.

Overall, though, Sleep welcomed the findings saying “I think it’s a good thing. You often hear people say that the market is only going up because of ETFs,” an argument the analysis undermines.

Todd Rosenbluth, head of ETF and mutual fund research at CFRA Research, said the findings ran counter to what he would have expected, and possibly signified ETF darling stocks first witness an unsustainable rise, followed by a reversion to the mean.

“There have been two narratives out there,” he said. “One is that too much money is going into ETFs and thus they are driving the car, and stock prices are being dragged along with them. This seems to disprove that,” Rosenbluth said.

“The second is that people will pile out of these [ETF darling] securities and the stocks will fall.”

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Biden faces tough path to US economic recovery




Joe Biden is grappling with a messy and unpredictable economic outlook as the twin threats of rising inflation and slow jobs growth shake confidence in the steadiness of the US recovery from the pandemic.

The US labour department this month reported that the pace of job creation slowed significantly in April, fuelling concerns of widespread discrepancies in the labour market.

It followed up that report with figures published last week showing an unexpectedly steep jump last month in its consumer price index, compounding fears of mounting inflationary pressures.

The data have exposed Biden to sharper criticism of his economic management from Republicans and rattled hopes of a smooth rebound from the coronavirus crisis on the back of hefty fiscal stimulus and quick vaccination rollouts.

The US has driven the global economic recovery, with the IMF predicting gross domestic product growth of 6.4 per cent in 2021.

“There are a lot of signs of a resurgence in aggregate demand — an economy that’s recovering, but that recovery is going to be chaotic,” said Wendy Edelberg, director of the Hamilton Project, an economic think-tank at the Brookings Institution. “And yes, really difficult to manage.”

Senior Biden administration officials have cautioned against drawing too many conclusions from one month’s data. They argued that average monthly job creation over the past three months has still been much stronger than in the previous quarter, that the inflation bounce is likely to be transitory and that the recovery remains firmly on track.

But they have also acknowledged high levels of economic uncertainty at a time of big shifts in spending patterns and employment trends, and as health-related restrictions are being lifted across the country more rapidly than predicted — partly because of the pace of the country’s vaccination campaign.

“There’s going to be a period, as supply starts to equal demand and sectors are healing and recovering, [during which] there’s going to be some choppiness,” Cecilia Rouse, chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, told reporters on Friday.

“We know that the mismatch between different parts of the economy will show up in unexpected ways until the economy more fully recovers. As the president urged earlier this week, we must be patient,” she added.

Critics of the administration’s economic policies — ranging from former Democratic Treasury secretary Larry Summers to Republicans on Capitol Hill — have seized on the latest data to argue that the Biden administration has recklessly dismissed the risks of excessive fiscal stimulus, and played down the economic warning signs.

“I was on the worried side about inflation and it’s all moved much faster, much sooner than I had predicted. That has to make us nervous going forward,” Summers wrote on Twitter on Friday.

“I think there’s a decent chance that this works out fine. And that we just have a super rapid recovery and a great year,” said Michael Strain, director of economic policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think-tank. “I think there’s also a chance that this could end really poorly.”

Other data releases last week failed to clarify the picture. The University of Michigan’s consumer sentiment index showed rising long-term inflation expectations, while retail sales were flat last month after a big jump in March. On the brighter side, weekly jobless claims out on Thursday dropped to a low point for the pandemic.

Cecilia Rouse
Cecilia Rouse said: ‘There’s going to be a period, as supply starts to equal demand and sectors are healing and recovering, [during which] there’s going to be some choppiness’ © Reuters

At this stage, there were no signs from the White House of any big changes to Biden’s policy agenda to address the emerging economic picture. On the labour market front, the president moved to enforce a requirement that citizens who were offered “suitable” jobs not be eligible for unemployment benefits, and Rouse said the White House was reminding businesses of a tax credit for employee retention set up as part of its stimulus programme.

The White House is sticking by the fiscal support it has enacted with the help of congressional Democrats not only to stoke the country’s recovery but also to help low-income families. It has also pointed to its confidence in the Federal Reserve to manage any rise in inflation.

But Republicans and conservative economists have called for more dramatic action to cool the economy, such as an early end to federal unemployment benefits, which Republican-led states across the country have refused to pay.

Meanwhile, economists whose forecasts were badly wrecked by the data released in recent days warned that any assumptions about the US recovery — let alone policy changes — may well have to be revisited.

“We’re in such an uncharted territory,” said the Hamilton Project’s Edelberg. “When you’re talking about the changes in aggregate demand that we’re experiencing, and changes in supply that we’re experiencing — whatever uncertainty you have about inflation in normal times, increase that by an order of magnitude.”

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Covid rules leave pubs and restaurants in England fearing the great indoor reopening




Before the pandemic, the tiny Sicilian restaurant Franzina Trattoria was loved by south London locals for its long communal tables. Customers would squeeze in and share food with people they had never met. Two diners, who were complete strangers, ended up getting married.

But as owner Stefania Taormina and her husband Pietro Franz prepare to welcome the first diners since December back into their 4-metre-wide eatery in Brixton on Monday, Taormina fears they may not return.

“We don’t see many bookings inside [and] it’s a bit scary. We think people are thinking differently now and sharing tables is maybe a problem,” she said.

To comply with Covid-19 restrictions for hospitality businesses in England when the government allows them to open indoors from Monday, Taormina has cut the number of guests seated in the restaurant from 55 to 14 and spent £1,000 on plastic dividers to break up the tables.

The saving grace has been the six two-person tables on the restaurant’s outside terrace, which have been booked all hours of the day since restrictions on outdoor eating and drinking were lifted in late April. “We are breaking even just about with the terrace open,” she said. “I think people still prefer to go to places outside.”

The pandemic has left the hospitality industry facing a crisis of historic proportions. Since the pandemic struck, UKHospitality, the trade body, estimates the sector across Britain has lost £80.8bn in sales between April 2020 and this March, compared with the previous 12-month period, equivalent to £9m every hour.

Line chart of like-for-like hospitality sales compared with 2019 (% change) showing pub and restaurant sales have plummeted during the pandemic

More than 8,500 of the UK’s 115,100 licensed premises have gone out of business. And only a third of those operating have the outdoor space that has allowed them to reopen since the government allowed alfresco dining from April 12.

Even as the rest make ready to open inside in the biggest easing of restrictions in England since lockdown was imposed in January, many pub and restaurant owners fear the remaining Covid rules — waiter service only at tables that must be at least 1m apart, with a limit of six people from no more than two households — will make most establishments unprofitable.

“The vast majority of our pubs will be trading on May 17 [but] I expect us still to be trading at levels where we will be making a loss,” said Andy Spencer, managing director of Punch Pubs, which owns 1,100 premises. He said that pubs would run at half their usual capacity and that the restrictions were “challenging, time consuming and expensive”.

Key to profitability for most pubs and restaurants is the removal of all social-distancing rules, and many owners were buoyed by recent comments from Boris Johnson. At the start of this week, the UK prime minister raised the possibility that all restrictions could be lifted over the summer.

But by Friday, Johnson warned that the next state of England’s lockdown easing plans due on June 21 — when all existing rules are set to fall away — may have to be delayed because of a surge in infections caused by the emergence a Covid-19 variant first detected in India.

Opening with extensive restrictions in place has presented other challenges, not least the need to train staff who have been furloughed for months.

Pedestrians walk past a PizzaExpress restaurant in central London
PizzaExpress’s 6,000 staff have had a week of ‘full immersion’ training in both hygiene measures and service © Tolga Akmen/AFP/Getty Images

Zoe Bowley, managing director of PizzaExpress, said the chain’s 6,000 employees had undergone a week of “full immersion” training, both in hygiene measures and service. “Some of our team members, apart from a small gap in November, haven’t worked for a year,” she said.

The sector also faces a labour shortage with a loss of experienced and qualified staff, partly due to the pandemic and partly due to Brexit, with EU workers returning to their home countries.

This will add to the pressure on employees facing customers for the first time in months. “They are rusty after furlough for a year and are heading back to jobs where they will have to cover other roles because there aren’t enough staff to cope,” warned Mark Lewis, chief executive of the charity Hospitality Action.

Another common fear is antagonising guests by insisting they comply with the Covid regulations, such as checking in with the test-and-trace app and wearing a mask when moving around.

Even if reopening goes as planned, the absence of foreign tourists and commuters for at least part of the summer — with international travel still heavily restricted and office staff encouraged to continue to work from home until at least late June — is expected to leave many city-centre establishments short of customers.

Anna Sebastian, manager of the Artesian bar at London’s Langham hotel
Anna Sebastian, bar manager of the Artesian at London’s Langham hotel, said ‘normality won’t be restored’ until tourists return in large numbers © Charlie Bibby/FT

“We’re very dependent on footfall from tourists shopping on Oxford Street and hotel guests, so until they return in large numbers, normality won’t be restored,” said Anna Sebastian, bar manager of the Artesian at The Langham hotel in London.

If there is a positive to have come out of the crisis, the pandemic has forced the industry to accelerate the adoption of technology that has improved productivity: payment and ordering apps allow operators to turn tables faster and employ fewer staff.

Customers using apps also tend to spend more per head having had more time to peruse the menu and the ability to order as and when they want, according to several pub and restaurant owners.

But Bowley warned there was a “fine balance” to strike to make sure that an industry built on personal service did not become “faceless” just as it needed customers to return.

Technology aside, Spencer said he feared that until sports and live music could restart and customers could stand up in crowded bars, the pub experience would be a “sanitised” one. “We have taken out a lot of the soul . . . and a lot of the things that make the pub really special,” he said.

It is the same pre-Covid conviviality that Taormina fears will be lost at Franzina Trattoria. “It was a joy for me because you would see people who you had never seen in your life start to drink together and talk about food together and then sometimes they would go out together afterwards . . . I am scared that it will not happen again.”

Additional reporting by Oliver Barnes

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