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Record-setting bitcoin faces test after volatile week



Bitcoin is set for a crucial few weeks to determine whether its record-breaking rally this year marks a rerun of the cryptocurrency bubble that burst in 2017 or the first leg of a long-term ascent.

The notoriously divisive cryptocurrency has surged more than 300 per cent since its low point of the year in March, hitting an all-time intraday high this week of $19,510, with bulls heralding the rally as a sign of new support from long-term institutional investors. But the following day it plunged as much as 14 per cent. On Friday afternoon in London, it was trading below $17,000.

The volatile shifts echo the implosion in cryptocurrency prices three years ago that left the market dormant for years, and rekindles the debate over whether bitcoin is a valueless, speculative tool or the new gold — providing an alternative way for investors and hedge funds to diversify their portfolios and smooth out risks from established asset classes.

Many doubters’ minds are already made up. Prominent economist Nouriel Roubini said bitcoin had “no role in institutional investors’ portfolios”, calling it a “a pure speculative asset and bubble with no fundamental value”.

But the scale of this year’s rally has caught investors’ attention. Wall Street bank analysts and asset managers say they are fielding more inquiries about cryptocurrencies from a range of clients.

Heavyweight investors such as billionaire hedge fund manager Paul Tudor Jones and Stanley Druckenmiller have both endorsed bitcoin this year, while global payments giant PayPal announced last month it would start accepting cryptocurrencies. High returns enjoyed by specialist hedge funds earlier this year have added a fresh shine to the asset.

Line chart of  showing Bitcoin sinks after hitting record

Bitcoin is the decade-old brainchild of an unknown individual who uses the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, who also created the underlying blockchain technology. It is unregulated and lacks the backing of any central bank, with hacks and fraud common in the industry. A frenzy of interest in 2017 produced a rally above $19,000 in December 2017 before intraday prices crashed to below $7,000 in February the following year and to just over $3,000 by the end of 2018.

Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou, a strategist at JPMorgan, said clues on the scale of the cryptocurrency’s support from long-term buyers could come from New York-based Grayscale Investments. Its bitcoin trust gives professional investors exposure to movements in the cryptocurrency without having to store the asset.

In the third quarter, more than $1bn of new investment flowed into Grayscale, and JPMorgan said inflows this quarter suggested “a pace [of inflows] that is three times stronger”.

Now, Mr Panigirtzoglou said, the test is what happens to flows in or out of the trust in light of the latest drop in bitcoin prices, and whether long-term investors are willing to look beyond short-term declines. “If we were to see outflows when the price is down, that could be a worrying development for bitcoin’s prospects,” he added.

Some investors are looking at bitcoin as a potential alternative to gold, an asset that tends to rise during periods of inflation and of turmoil in geopolitics or markets. “Since October, we have seen gold and bitcoin competing for allocations,” Mr Panigirtzoglou said.

This development is hard to explain. Bitcoin’s volatility is far higher than any traditional asset, and a 50 per cent drop in just 48 hours in March undermines its supposed haven properties. Evidence that cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin can counteract inflation pressures in a portfolio is also limited.

Large professional investors such as asset managers remain wary. Ugo Lancioni, head of currency management at US asset manager Neuberger Berman, said his team had been debating cryptocurrencies for years, but for now the fund is staying away.

Smaller family offices, which manage money on behalf of wealthy families, may be more tempted, however. “I don’t think asset managers will enter this space, before [it is] regulated, or some major player will make their own cryptocurrency,” said Thomas Wind, former head of trading at Swiss family office Woodman Asset Management.

But for investors like him, crypto could act as a hedge for rates and equity markets, Mr Wind said, adding that as a family office “you need a bit of crypto in your portfolio”.

Bitcoin’s rally does not eliminate doubts about the cryptocurrency’s lack of regulation and the hacks and scams associated with it. It is unlikely that bitcoin will replace gold completely, but the cryptocurrency could chip away at some of the metal’s share in investors’ holdings, analysts think.

“We could see further allocations as we are at the very beginning of the process,” Mr Panigirtzoglou said. “And a jump from zero to a small allocation in global portfolios can still be a big deal.”

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ExxonMobil proposes carbon storage plan for Texas port




ExxonMobil is pitching a plan to capture and store carbon dioxide emitted by industrial facilities around Houston that it said could attract $100bn in investment if the Biden administration put a price on the greenhouse gas.

The oil supermajor is touting the scheme ahead of the US climate summit starting on Thursday, where President Joe Biden plans to announce more aggressive national emissions targets and hopes to spur world leaders to increase their own carbon-cutting goals.

Carbon capture and storage, or CCS, “should be a key part of the US strategy for meeting its Paris goals and included as part of the administration’s upcoming Nationally Determined Contributions”, said Joe Blommaert, head of Exxon’s low-carbon focused business, referring to the targets that countries are required to submit under the 2015 Paris climate agreement.

Oil and gas producers have sought to highlight their commitments to tackle emissions ahead of this week’s climate talks, which promise to heap pressure on the fossil fuel industry. BP pledged to stop flaring natural gas in Texas’ Permian oilfields by 2025, while EQT, the country’s largest natural gas producer, said it backed federal methane regulations.

The International Energy Agency has called carbon capture and storage, which uses chemicals to strip carbon dioxide from industrial emissions, “critical for putting energy systems around the world on a sustainable path”.

But the technology has struggled to gain traction as costs have remained persistently high. The most recent setback in the US came last year with the mothballing of the Petra Nova project, the country’s largest, which captured carbon from a Texas coal-fired power plant.

Many environmental groups have been critical of the oil and gas industry’s focus on carbon capture, arguing it is used to justify continued investment in oil and gas production and is not economical, especially as the costs of zero-carbon wind and solar power have plummeted.

Exxon said that establishing a market price on carbon — which has been attempted by a handful of US states, Texas not among them — would be important. The US government should “implement policies to enable CCS to receive direct investment and incentives similar to those available to other efforts to reduce emissions”, Blommaert said.

Exxon declined to comment on the carbon price it thought was needed to justify the investment, but said its plan would generate $100bn of investment from companies and government in the Houston region.

The company’s plans call for a hub that would capture emissions from the 50 largest emitting industrial facilities along the Houston Ship Channel, such as oil refineries and petrochemical plants, and ship the carbon by pipeline to reservoirs for storage deep under the sea floor of the Gulf of Mexico.

The project could capture and store about 100m tonnes of CO2 a year by 2040 if developed, Exxon said. That is 2 per cent of the roughly 4.6bn tonnes of US energy-related carbon emissions in 2020, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Exxon has been under intense pressure from investors, including a proxy fight with the activist hedge fund Engine No 1, to bolster its strategy for the transition to cleaner fuels. In February, it created a low-carbon business line that it said would spend about $3bn over the next five years.

Biden’s $2tn clean-energy focused infrastructure plan would expand carbon capture and storage tax credits. The administration said it would back 10 projects focused on capturing carbon from heavy industry, but it did not endorse a price on carbon.

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European stocks hit record after strong US earnings and economic data




European equities hovered around record levels, the dollar dropped and government bonds nudged higher on Monday as markets continued to cheer strong economic data while also banking on continued support from the US Federal Reserve.

The regional Stoxx Europe 600 index gained 0.3 per cent during the morning to set a new record, before falling back to trade flat.

This follows a week of upbeat earnings from US banks as investors await results from big businesses including Coca-Cola and IBM later on Monday. Data released last week showed US homebuilding surged to a near 15-year high in March while retail sales increased by the most in 10 months.

The dollar, as measured against a basket of currencies, fell 0.4 per cent as bets on higher interest rates receded. The euro rose 0.4 per cent against the dollar to buy at $1.203. Sterling also gained 0.4 per cent to €1.389.

Federal Reserve chair Jay Powell told the Economic Club of Washington DC last week that the central bank would not taper its $120bn of monthly asset purchases until it saw “substantial further progress” towards full employment.

Haven assets such as government debt remained in demand. As prices ticked up, the yield on the benchmark 10-year US Treasury note fell 0.02 percentage points to 1.557 per cent, while the yield on the equivalent German Bund slid 0.01 percentage points to minus 0.271 per cent.

Investing convention assumes that US Treasuries and global equities move in opposite directions to cushion against falls in either asset class, but both have now rallied in tandem for an unusually sustained period.

The S&P 500, the blue-chip US stock index, has risen for four consecutive weeks to set new records. The yield on the 10-year Treasury has fallen from about 1.74 per cent at the end of March to just under 1.56 per cent on Monday as investors bought the debt. Treasuries and US stocks not have risen together for so long since 2008, according to Deutsche Bank.

Futures markets indicated the S&P would drift 0.2 per cent lower as Wall Street trading opens.

“I am not saying it’s a rational time in the markets,” said Yuko Takano, equity fund manager at Newton Investment Management. A reason for caution, she added, was signs of “bubbles” in alternative assets such as cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens. “There is really an abundance of liquidity. There will be a correction at some point but it is hard to time when it will come.”

“Markets may have become temporarily overbought,” strategists at Credit Suisse commented. “For now, we prefer to keep equity allocations at neutral” rather than buying more stocks, they said.

In Asia, Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index closed up 0.5 per cent and Japan’s Topix slid 0.2 per cent.

Global oil benchmark Brent crude fell 0.3 per cent to $66.57 a barrel.

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EU split over delay to decision on classing gas as green investment




The European Commission is split over whether to postpone a decision on classifying gas generated from fossil fuels as green energy under its landmark classification system for investors.

Brussels had planned to publish an updated draft of a taxonomy for sustainable finance later this week. The document is designed to guide those who want to direct their money into environmentally friendly investments, and help stamp out the misreporting of companies’ environmental impact, known as greenwashing. 

The commission was forced to revamp its initial proposals earlier this year after the text was criticised by member states which want gas to be explicitly recognised as a low-emission technology that can help the EU meet its goal of becoming a net-zero polluter by 2050. 

Now the publication of the draft rules could be postponed again as the commission seeks to resolve the impasse. According to a draft of the text seen by the Financial Times, the commission proposed to delay the decision in order to carry out a separate assessment of how gas and nuclear “contribute to decarbonisation” to allow for a more “transparent” debate about the technologies.

But officials told the FT that some commissioners were pushing for gas to be awarded the green label now, rather than delaying the decision until later this year. 

“There are a sizeable number of voices in the commission who want gas to be included in the taxonomy,” said one official. A final decision on whether to approve the current text or delay it again for further redrafting is likely to be made on Monday.

The EU’s taxonomy is being closely watched by investors as the first big attempt by a leading regulatory body to create a labelling scheme that will help guide billions of euros of investment into green financial products.

But the process has proved divisive, as several EU governments have demanded recognition for lower-emissions energy sources such as gas. 

Coal-reliant countries such as Poland, Hungary, Romania and others that are banking on gas to help reduce their emissions do not want the labelling system to discriminate against them. France and the Czech Republic, meanwhile, are also pushing for the recognition of nuclear as a “transitional” technology in the taxonomy.

A leaked legal text seen by the FT earlier this month paved the way for gas to be considered green in some limited circumstances. That has since been removed along with other sensitive topics such as how best to classify the agricultural sector, according to the latest draft the FT has seen.

EU governments and the European Parliament have the power to block the draft if they can muster a qualified majority of countries and MEPs against it. 

Environmental groups have hailed the exercise, and urged Brussels to stick to science-based criteria in defining the thresholds for sustainable economic activity.

Luca Bonaccorsi from the Transport & Environment NGO said delaying decisions on gas and nuclear risked allowing pro-nuclear countries like France and the Czech Republic to join up with pro-gas member states “to forge an alliance that will obtain the greening and inclusion of both energy sources”.

“Should they ally, it will be impossible to resist the greenwashing of these two unsustainable energy sources,” said Bonaccorsi. 

The delays in agreeing the taxonomy have forced Brussels to abandon an attempt to use it as the basis for EU green bonds that will be issued as part of the bloc’s €800bn recovery and resilience fund. About €250bn of debt will be issued in the form of sustainable bonds over the next few years, which will make the commission one of the world’s biggest issuers of sustainable debt.

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