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New Delhi’s toxic air exacerbates coronavirus threat

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Medical experts have warned that the toxic pollution that envelops New Delhi annually will lead to more coronavirus deaths.

By 7am in mid-November, the air in New Delhi smells of acrid smoke and the sky is covered by a grimy brown haze. The air quality is comparable to Beijing on its most polluted days, and will deteriorate further as the temperature and winds drop, blanketing the national capital region in smog for months.

Farm stubble burning, vehicle emissions and the encroaching winter have pushed the city’s air quality index into the severe category at the same time that more than 5,000 coronavirus cases are being confirmed daily.

Doctors said that the pandemic has exposed how pollution has made populations more vulnerable to disease, warning that a flood of coronavirus patients with severe symptoms, aggravated by the hazardous air, could overwhelm India’s hospitals.

“There is a definitive association between Covid mortality and air pollution,” said Chandrakant Lahariya, an epidemiologist in New Delhi. “More people with respiratory diseases will develop symptoms.”

Long-term exposure to air pollution is linked to 15 per cent of “potentially avoidable” Covid-19 deaths, said researchers behind a new study published in the journal Cardiovascular Research.

“Air pollution is acting like a super spreader for Covid,” said Thomas Münzel, a co-author and cardiologist at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. He said that particulate matter made lungs more susceptible to coronavirus infection.

India’s pollution season poses a perennial problem for authorities who have failed to develop a successful strategy to curb emissions. Every year, smog blankets north India, home to 10 of the 15 most polluted cities in the world.

Last year, when the index hit 1,000 — it should be below 50 — Delhi state chief minister Arvind Kejriwal said the capital had “turned into a gas chamber”.

Mr Kejriwal’s government last month launched a “Green War Room”, which is responsible for monitoring pollution levels in the national capital region and deploying enforcement agencies to crack down on environmental offences such as garbage burning and illegal industrial activity.

One of the war room’s early recruits was Aashima Arora. Ms Arora left her well-paid job at Citibank to join the Air Pollution Action Group, determined to tackle the toxic air that kills more than 1m Indians every year.

As a child growing up in New Delhi, Ms Arora did not even know the colour of the sky until a family holiday to the Himalayas when she was five.

“I do not remember seeing blue skies in Delhi. They are as rare as rainbows,” said the 24-year-old, who blames the thick smog that chokes the city for her asthma and severe allergies.

“In winter I’m [usually] scared to go out of my house. Now with coronavirus . . . it’s absolutely frightening,” she said.

Environmental activist Licypriya Kangujam, 9, holds a banner during a solo demonstration in front of India’s parliament © AFP via Getty Images

Inside the war room, a series of giant screens display air quality indicators as well as satellite maps that identify fires.

There is also a dashboard to track complaints about pollution that could exacerbate the smog, with the public encouraged to alert the authorities to non-compliant construction sites, burning rubbish or illegal industrial work with a new app.

The pollution has also spurred entrepreneurship. Jai Dhar Gupta, chief executive of New Delhi-based mask manufacturer Nirvana Being, said sales this year had surged 3,000 per cent.

“We already have a respiratory virus [Covid-19] that we don’t understand, now we are adding tons and tons of poison in the air,” said Mr Gupta, who founded his business in 2015 after his lungs collapsed when he was training for a marathon in New Delhi.

“We are going to experience an unprecedented public health catastrophe.”

After battering big cities, coronavirus is now sweeping through India’s rural areas, where the bulk of the population lives and medical infrastructure is weak.

The nation of 1.4bn people has the world’s second-highest number of coronavirus infections with more than 8.85m cases and has recorded 130,000 deaths.

A government-appointed panel recently concluded that the country’s outbreak may have peaked, and could be under control by February. But the claim was disputed by experts who point out that testing data and deaths may be under-reported.

It is not just in the capital that fears are mounting. Puneet Singh Perhar, a pulmonologist based in Jalandhar, in the northern state of Punjab, said: “Every winter the condition of patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchitis gets aggravated due to air pollution in north India.”

“This time there is the coronavirus infection as well,” he added. “The number of patients will surge. It’s scary.”





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Ebay to sell South Korea unit for $3.1bn as local rivals target Coupang

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Ebay is set to sell its South Korea business to a local consortium for $3.1bn, according to people with knowledge of the matter, as rivals seek to turn up the heat on SoftBank-backed Coupang in the world’s fourth-largest ecommerce market.

The consortium, which consists of South Korea’s biggest bricks-and-mortar retailer E-Mart and internet group Naver, plans to buy an 80 per cent stake in eBay Korea for Won3.5tn ($3.1bn) with the US company retaining the remainder, said the people.

The purchase could help the consortium to overtake fast-growing Coupang, which raised $4.6bn in an initial public offering in New York in March to become the biggest player in South Korea’s highly competitive ecommerce market. Japanese technology group SoftBank is a large investor in Coupang.

Ebay Korea was the country’s third-largest ecommerce company with a 13 per cent market share last year, according to research group Euromonitor. Its three platforms — Gmarket, Auction and G9 — recorded Won20tn in transactions last year, data from Meritz Securities showed.

Euromonitor has forecast that South Korea’s ecommerce market will grow by 11 per cent this year to $116bn. But it is a fragmented market of more than a dozen players, with Coupang and Naver controlling 19 per cent and 14 per cent shares in terms of transaction volume, respectively.

South Korea is one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing ecommerce markets, driven by its tech-savvy population, high-speed internet infrastructure and densely populated environment. Ecommerce accounted for 35.8 per cent of the retail market last year, compared with 28.6 per cent in 2019, Euromonitor data showed.

E-Mart plans to fund the deal with Won3tn of asset-backed loans with the remainder paid by its cash holdings, while Naver will contribute Won100bn, according to an industry official close to the situation.

“Despite the funding structure, E-Mart needs Naver to make up for its weak online networks,” said the official.

Conglomerate Lotte Group and E-Mart were the final bidders for eBay Korea. Both have struggled to catch up with Coupang, which is investing heavily in logistics to boost its delivery times. Coupang almost doubled its revenues last year to $12bn as more consumers shifted to online shopping during the Covid-19 pandemic.

“Both Lotte and E-Mart were eager to take over eBay’s operations but E-Mart offered about Won500bn more,” added the industry official.

Naver is one of Korea’s most popular internet portals and more than 40 per cent of eBay Korea’s customers access it via the former’s search engine.

Shinsegae, E-Mart’s parent company, and Naver partnered in March by swapping stakes in each other worth Won250bn.

Ebay Korea declined to comment. E-Mart said in a regulatory filing that it was in talks with eBay but a sale had not been finalised. Naver said in a separate filing that the deal had not been concluded.



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ByteDance revenues more than doubled in 2020 to $34.3bn

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ByteDance increased its revenues 111 per cent last year to $34bn and had 1.9bn monthly users across its apps at the end of the year, said its incoming chief executive Liang Rubo on Thursday, according to people familiar with the matter.

The owner of the short-video apps TikTok and Douyin recorded a surge in users as coronavirus lockdowns across the world left people searching for more entertainment online. Douyin, the Chinese sister app to TikTok, was ByteDance’s largest driver of revenue and has become a destination for shoppers looking to buy products from livestreaming presenters.

Facebook, the world’s biggest social media group, reported 2.85bn monthly users as of March 31.

ByteDance recorded an annual gross profit of $19bn but a net loss of $45bn for the year because of non-cash items including share-based compensation and fair-value changes of its shares, and heavy investment in new businesses, the people said. The company had 110,000 employees at the end of they year.

The financials were first reported by the Wall Street Journal and Chinese media.

Its chief rival in China, Kuaishou, reported a net loss of $15.4bn on $8.5bn in revenue last year — four times less than ByteDance — and 481m monthly users during the period. Kuaishou is trading in Hong Kong at a market capitalisation of HK$801bn ($103bn), while ByteDance has yet to reveal its plans for an initial public offering.

ByteDance raised about $5bn in December at a $180bn valuation, according to people familiar with the matter. The Beijing-based company is the world’s most valuable start-up, according to CB Insights. 

Liang made his first all-hands staff meeting speech on Thursday after he began the transition to chief executive last month, following founder Zhang Yiming’s announcement that he would step down at the end of the year. Zhang said he wanted to focus on innovation and “longer-term initiatives”.

Liang, a ByteDance co-founder who staff regard as Zhang’s loyal right-hand man, was previously head of human resources. Even after a six-month handover period, staff said they expected him to not make big changes and to continue taking direction from Zhang.

As Beijing increases its scrutiny of tech giants, several high-profile founders and chiefs have stepped back this year. Colin Huang stepped down as chair of ecommerce platform Pinduoduo in March, days after Eric Jing resigned as chief of Ant Group.

Liang told employees he was disclosing the financial figures as part of a drive for greater transparency at the company.



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Coronavirus latest: Royal Caribbean delays inaugural sailing of ship due to Covid cases

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Monique Roffey in London with a poster of her novel ‘The Mermaid of Black Conch’
Monique Roffey in London with a poster of her novel ‘The Mermaid of Black Conch’, which is published in paperback this month by Vintage © Monique Roffey

In April 2020, as coronavirus spread around the world, Monique Roffey published her seventh book.

She went with UK-based Peepal Tree Press, a small Caribbean-focused independent company, to publish The Mermaid of Black Conch after the majors rejected her fantastical tale of a mermaid from another era.

“Indie published me in the eye of the storm,” Roffey says. “I did everything I could to get it noticed.”

The Trinidadian-born author crowdfunded £4,500 for a publicist for her novel but as the healthcare crisis took hold she feared her mermaid tale would slide by unnoticed.

She was struggling to pay the rent while the Covid-19 crisis cancelled book tours and festivals.

“Covid was potentially disastrous for my book,” she says. “It was in danger of falling into the Covid chasm.”

But then the lyrical tale of loneliness, love and otherness caught the attention of the literary world and judges applauded it. In January, the novel won the prestigious £30,000 Costa book award, with judges calling it “extraordinary”, “captivating” and “full of mythic energy and unforgettable characters”.

And, bingo, suddenly everyone wanted to read about the mermaid Aycayia, says Roffey, who (full disclosure) attended the same school in the outskirts of Port-of-Spain as I did. 

The story has sold about 60,000 copies in print and online and this month it is published in paperback format by Vintage. For two consecutive weeks this year the novel topped The Times bestseller list. Film rights could well be next.

“Against all the odds, I have done well during Covid,” Roffey says from her home in London. “In 20 years of writing, with many ups and downs, I have seen nothing quite like this.”

Her novel of fantasy and folklore tapped into a desire for reading and imagination during the dark days of coronavirus-induced lockdowns. Roffey joined many authors pivoting online with book launches and literary festivals, which meant she gained global readers.

“In 2020, the nation turned to books for comfort, escapism and relaxation,” says the Publishers Association, the UK’s trade organisation that serves book and journal publishers. “Reading triumphed, with adults and children alike reading more during lockdown than before.”

Income from fiction rose 16 per cent last year to £688m, while the total for consumer publications rose 7 per cent in the UK to £2.1bn, the UK trade body says. 

“Basically a book, which was roundly ignored, rejected, published in the first Covid wave and that nobody registered,” was relaunched, Roffey says.

From nobody wanting the book, suddenly billboards of its cover are cropping up around town, she adds.

This is the sixth article in a series for the blog that explores the effects of the pandemic on people and businesses around the world



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